Grain oriented steel (GOES) price May 2024 and outlook (see chart below)

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Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) price index

This post is a summary of the Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) developments. The price developments of Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) are expressed in US$ prices converted FX rates applicable at the time when the price was valid. Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) price index developments are calculated from multiple separate sources of data to ensure statistical accuracy.

The outlook for Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) prices, on the second tab, is generated from different inputs including:

  • Very recent price developments of immediate cost drivers of Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) prices
  • Recent price developments of underlying feedstocks which drive the price of Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES)
  • Market futures for both cost drives and feedstocks of Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) prices
  • Adjustment of current supply/demand imbalances in the Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) market
  • Longer term trends in likely demand conditions

Further information on the Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) price index

 

What is Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES)

Grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES) is a type of electrical steel specifically designed and processed for use in transformers, motors, and other electrical equipment where magnetic properties are crucial. Here are the key characteristics and features of grain-oriented steel:

Grain Orientation

The term “grain-oriented” refers to the alignment of the crystal grains within the steel. In grain-oriented electrical steel, the grains are intentionally oriented in the rolling direction during manufacturing to optimize its magnetic properties.

High Magnetic Permeability

Grain-oriented steel exhibits high magnetic permeability along the rolling direction, which means it can conduct magnetic flux more efficiently in that direction compared to non-oriented electrical steel.

Low Core Losses

The unique grain orientation of GOES results in lower core losses (hysteresis and eddy current losses) when subjected to alternating magnetic fields. This makes it highly efficient for use in electrical transformers and motors, where minimizing energy losses is essential.

High Induction

GOES can sustain high magnetic induction levels, allowing for the design of smaller and more efficient electrical devices with higher power densities.

Silicon Content

Grain-oriented electrical steel typically contains high levels of silicon (around 3% to 4%) along with small amounts of other alloying elements such as carbon and aluminum. The silicon helps to align the crystal grains and enhance magnetic properties.

Thin Gauge

GOES is often produced in thin gauge sheets or strips, typically around 0.2 to 0.3 millimeters thick, to minimize eddy current losses and maximize efficiency in electrical applications.

Manufacturing Process

The production of grain-oriented electrical steel involves several critical steps, including hot rolling, annealing, and final cold rolling with controlled grain orientation. These processes are carefully controlled to achieve the desired magnetic properties.

Grain-oriented electrical steel is widely used in power generation, transmission, and distribution systems, as well as in various industrial applications where efficient magnetic performance is essential. Its unique properties make it a critical material for the efficient operation of electrical equipment.

 

How is Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) produced

Raw Materials

The primary raw materials for producing grain-oriented electrical steel are iron ore, coal, and various alloying elements such as silicon, aluminum, and carbon.

Melting and Casting

The raw materials are melted together in a furnace to form molten steel. This steel is then cast into large slabs or billets.

Hot Rolling

The cast steel is heated and passed through a series of rolling mills to reduce its thickness and shape it into thin strips or sheets. This initial hot rolling helps to align the crystal grains in the steel, but it’s not sufficient for grain orientation.

Annealing

After hot rolling, the steel undergoes a process called annealing. This involves heating the steel to high temperatures (typically around 1100 to 1250°C) and then slowly cooling it in a controlled atmosphere. Annealing helps to promote the growth of large, elongated crystal grains aligned along the rolling direction.

Final Cold Rolling

The annealed steel is further processed through cold rolling mills to achieve the desired final thickness and surface finish. During cold rolling, the steel is typically subjected to high pressure to refine its microstructure and improve its magnetic properties.

Insulating Coating

In some cases, the grain-oriented steel may be coated with insulating materials to minimize eddy current losses and improve its electrical insulation properties.

Cutting and Packaging

The final grain-oriented electrical steel coils or sheets are cut to size, inspected for quality, and then packaged for shipment to transformer manufacturers.

Overall, the production of grain-oriented electrical steel involves several critical steps, including melting, casting, hot rolling, annealing, cold rolling, and final processing. These processes are carefully controlled to achieve the desired magnetic properties required for efficient transformer operation.

 

What are the uses of Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES)

Grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES) is specifically designed for use in electrical power transformers, where high magnetic flux density and low energy losses are critical. Here’s how it’s used and produced:

Power Transformers

Grain-oriented steel is primarily used in the core of power transformers. These transformers are essential components in electrical power distribution systems, converting voltage levels for efficient transmission and distribution of electricity.

Distribution Transformers

It’s also used in distribution transformers, which step down high-voltage electricity from transmission lines to lower voltages suitable for industrial, commercial, and residential use.

Induction Motors

GOES can be used in high-efficiency induction motors where low energy losses and high magnetic permeability are crucial for optimal performance.

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